Published in the Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 72, January–February 2021, Jordan Riddell and John Worrall consider the factors associated with officer firearm and conducted energy weapon displays. They described the purpose of the study focus as having a “specific concern” as to “whether black subjects were more likely to have firearms drawn against them relative to other subjects.”
The researchers concluded: “We found no consistent evidence of racial bias in firearm draws. Results hinged to an extent on the samples analyzed and statistical models estimated. In addition, our findings apply solely to one city and highlight the complexity of use-of-force research and the need for further replication.”
Additional analysis from Secure1776 coming soon.